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Causality: A direct, measurable and observable outcome. It shows that change in one variable causes a change in another variable.
Comparison group: Arm of the study that receives either no treatment, business-as-usual treatment, or a comparison treatment
Control group: Term for the comparison group that specifically refers to randomized controlled trials
Correlation: Suggested or implied link that may be a result of a pattern. Correlational studies establish relationships between variables but not direct cause and effect.
Measure: Standard for comparison against which other things can be evaluated
Treatment group: Arm of the study that receives the intervention or exposure of interest