(Anulom-vilom pranayama, or Nadi-suddhi pranayama) Different terms used for any form of alternating unilateral nostril breathing by manually closing one of the nostrils while in a seated erect position.
The baroreflex regulates blood pressure (BP) by controlling heart rate (HR), heart contractility, and venous/arterial resistance. Low sensitivity may identify a prognosis of a diminished capacity to adjust HR as needed whereas high sensitivity as generally seen as an indicator of cardiac health.
considered the gold standard and the most used in classifying generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) from infancy to old age. It consists of five clinical maneuvers performed bilaterally, in which a positive score in ≥4 joints indicates the presence of GJH. The higher the score, the higher the laxity.
One point is given if palms touch the floor in a standing forward bend with legs straight.
One point for each elbow that bends backwards
One point for each knee that bends backwards
One point for each thumb that touches the forearm when bent backwards
One point for each little finger that bends backwards beyond 90 degrees.
A yoga method franchised by Bikram Choudry. It’s described as a type of hatha yoga characterized by a set series of postures and breathing exercises, performed in a room heated to a very high temperature. Standard Bikram yoga classes are 90 minutes, 105 degrees, 40% humidity and repeats a series of 26 poses.
of or relating to an experiment or clinical trial in which the researchers but not the subjects know which subjects are receiving the active medication or treatment and which are not: a technique for eliminating subjective bias, as the placebo effect, from the test results.
when a learner performs a single skill over and over, with repetition being the key. Variance in training is minimized or nonexistent. The learner then moves on to practice another discrete skill in the same way.
A set of clinical criteria and morphological features used for diagnosing Hypermobility Syndrome (HMS) that includes a Beighton score of 4 or higher and joint pain in 4 or more joints for more than 3 months. It can also include abnormalities in the skin, marfanoid habitus and other signs of tissue laxity.
a Brazilian martial art that incorporates elements of dance, acrobatic movements, jumps, and landings. (Similar to gymnasts, these athletes may be more susceptible to lower limb injuries due to the high impact jumps and landings.)
Conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke. Other heart conditions, such as those that affect the heart’s muscle, valves or rhythm, are also considered forms of heart disease.The most common type of heart disease in the United States is coronary artery disease, which affects the blood flow to the heart. Decreased blood flow can cause a heart attack.
a condition of the nervous system that involves chronic pain. When central sensitization occurs, the nervous system goes through a process called “wind-up” and stays in a persistent state of high reactivity.
Recurring ankle sprains that may or may not include functional impairments. Lateral ankle sprains are very common in people who are physically active. 73% of those who have had ankle sprains may develop chronic ankle instability.
Reviews of primary research in human health care and health policy investigating the effects of interventions for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation; internationally recognized as the highest standard in evidence-based health care resources. (from Cochrane.org)
An intervention that focuses more on modifying thoughts, behaviors, and beliefs in order to manage the input of pain. When it comes to pain, CBT focuses more on managing pain rather than decreasing the pain itself.
A category of interventions to be distinguished from conventional therapies or medicines. Often called alternative or integrative health or abbreviated as CAM (complementary and alternative medicines).
A group of people in a study that do not receive the same treatment (intervention) as another group in the same study. The purpose of having a control group is to give more reliable data with which to compare results. For example, a study on the effect of yoga on cardiovascular health could have two groups, giving one group the yoga program and the other group another exercise program.
Those that have generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) but don’t have chronic musculoskeletal complaints lasting longer than 3 months. GJH is very common in athletes, dancers, martial artists, and gymnasts. They are at more risk for musculoskeletal pain but are high functioning in performance and motor control. Poor proprioception may be present as well as other symptoms of GJH.
The ability of the osteoarticular and muscular structures to maintain or retain the position of the trunk when an external force is applied, coordinated by the motor control system. The muscles around the lumbo-pelvic area that help maintain a neutral position of the spine, which is thought to be more stable. These muscles also help generate force from the trunk to the limbs.
Aka hydrocortisone. A glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal glands that is involved in metabolic processes, immune functions, and suppressing the inflammatory response. It becomes elevated in the blood during physical or psychological stress.
Substances that are secreted by cells of the immune system. They have an effect on other cells. The three cytokines they analyzed in this study were interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), and C-reactive protein (CRP). These are some of the inflammation markers that can be measured and analyzed.
an epigenetic change that has a role in regulating gene expression and is studied due its potential effects on a wide range of conditions and diseases. Methylation is part of a larger field of science – epigenetics. DNA methylation occurs when DNA expressions (not the DNA code itself) are altered by epigenetics. Factors such as nutrition, environment, experience, exercise, and aging affect methylation – whether the genes are turned “on” or “off”.
an experimental procedure in which neither the subjects of the experiment nor the persons administering the experiment know the critical aspects of the experiment; “a double-blindprocedure is used to avoid experimenter bias and placebo effects.”
Breathing disorders that result in chronic breathing patterns that create dyspnea as well as other symptoms. These symptoms would be in the absence of organic respiratory disease or in excess of regular symptoms, meaning once the symptoms are controlled they still have dysfunctional breathing.
Strength training that emphasizes resisting gravity and maintaining load while the muscle is lengthening. Example: One action of the hamstring is to flex the knee. This is the concentric action of the muscle. If the lower leg resists the movement of straightening the knee, that would be the eccentric aspect of strength. During running, the hamstring eccentrically works to slow down the forward motion of the leg that is moving forward.
A collection of heritable connective tissue disorders thought to alter the biology of collagen in the body (the most abundant protein), which can lead to multi-systemic symptoms, such as: hypermobile joints and soft, stretchy skin, easy bruising, easy wounding, poor wound healing and/or atrophic scarring.
An intervention that focuses on pain education, reconceptualizing pain knowledge and combining it with other modes of rehabilitation as a means of pain treatment. Foremost EP teaches that pain is a marker of perceived need to protect body tissue, and not a marker of actual tissue damag
The definition of fascia continues to evolve as more research comes out. Robert Schleip describes it as a “body wide tensional network which consists of all fibrous collagenous soft connective tissues.” The continuous network tissue holds together muscle, tendons, bones, organs, and cells. Fascia comes in a variety of densities, shapes, striations, and architectures due to all of the different tensional strains that are put on the tissue.
At the end of a max inhale a person is told to breathe out as hard as they can. The volume exhaled in that 1st second is the FEV1. Usually considered with FVC as a ratio (FEV1 /FVC). With a condition like asthma (obstructive disease) it is harder to exhale a large volume in that first second so the ratio is a lower value than normal. This test is used to assess overall pulmonary function.
GAD is a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by excessive and persistent worrying that is difficult to control. It can include physical symptoms such as increased fatigue and muscular tension, among others. GAD affects more than 3 million people every year, and it is twice as common in women as it is in men.
common with people who have chronic pain. It’s a prevalent clinical characteristic that is present in 2%–57% (that’s a huge range) of the healthy population and is dependent on age, sex, and ethnicity. Because clinicians are not as aware of GJH-related chronic pain, patients tend to search for years before being diagnosed.
an approach to Hatha yoga that emphasizes structural alignment of the body based on the teachings of B.K.S. Iyengar. The method is progressive and postures are adapted to meet the needs of the individual. Creative use of props to adapt the pose is common.
A condition that affects one or more of the joints goes beyond its normal limits. Can be diagnosed with the Beighton score, and can also include systemic issues (central nervous system fatigue, pain, anxiety, dysautonomia, and abdominal pain). Diagnosis can be difficult because there can be laxity with no systemic issues, or conversely no laxity with systemic issues. There can be a loss of range of motion due to age or physical limitation but they may still have JHM.
A disorder of the connective tissue that can result in unstable joints, skin abnormalities, chronic pain, and fatigue. It can also include many other symptoms. The term “hypermobility” includes a an array of sub categories with a wide continuum of symptomatology. The broadest umbrella term is “hypermobility spectrum disorders”. The spectrum ranges from those who are high functioning (with the only symptom being generalized joint hypermobility), to people with so many symptoms they can be debilitated. The latter would most likely be someone diagnosed as Ehlers Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (hEDS).
The study of describing movement and motion (acceleration, displacement, time, velocity, etc.). It does not take account for what caused the movement. It’s sometimes referred to as the geometry of motion as it more specifically studies joint positions, angles, and acceleration during movement.
The proportion of a population that at some point in their life (up to the time of assessment) have experienced the condition. Prevalence estimates are used by epidemiologists, health care providers, government agencies, and insurers.
Parts of the brain, such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, located deep in the brain that are responsible for motivation, emotion, learning, and memory.
When we ambulate through the world our brain stores up a cache of “movement memory” created from our previous experience as well as from observing the movement of others. This storage of movement patterns first helps us to be as efficient as possible while moving around. Secondly it helps in being prepared physically for a possibly hazardous environment. When we encounter an escalator or moving sidewalk, previously the movement experience with the escalator was filed away so we can call upon the movement strategy that we used before, not having to figure it out from scratch and keeps us from toppling over when we go on the moving surface. Studies have shown when people walk onto an escalator and it’s not moving, our body still reacts as if there is going to be movement. We automatically go to the stored movement in our brains and anticipate a moving surface making us do a bit of a shimmy before we realize that the escalator is not moving. This effect has been termed the “broken escalator paradigm”, or locomotor aftereffect (LAE).
A previous study by Gallagher et al. has found that under a 2-hour standing protocol of people with no history of back pain 40-60% of them will develop pain (Pain developers (PD) after the 2 hours of standing. The others are deemed non-pain developers (NPD).They found that PD’s also had a relaxation of gluteal muscles in the standing experiment.
Agenetic disorder that affects the body’s connective tissue. Marfan syndrome is caused by a defect (or mutation) in the gene that tells the body how to make fibrillin-1. This mutation results in an increase in a protein called transforming growth factor beta.
(more correctly, ‘difference in means’) is a standard statistic that measures the absolute difference between the mean value in two groups in a clinical trial. It estimates the amount by which the experimental intervention changes the outcome on average compared with the control. Mean is sum divided by the count.
Balance evaluation systems test. This 14 task evaluation assesses 6 different areas that influence balance, stability, postural responses, sensory orientation, dynamic balance during gait and cognitive effects. Each task is scored 0 to 2 with a max score of 28. Things like standing on one leg, seeing the quality of how they fall, standing with eyes opened and closed, and the get up and go test (TUG), are some of the tasks in this evaluation.
The distance between a joint axis and the line of force acting on it. Every joint that is involved in an exercise has a moment arm. The longer the moment arm is the more load will be applied to the joint axis through leverage.
A one-dimensional measurement of muscle length, such as the ability of a muscle to extend to an endpoint. Increases in muscle extensibility are here demonstrated by end-range joint angles. In stretching research in humans, most often this means a subject’s sensation.
The ability of a muscle to withstand load. It refers to how the muscle will deform in relation to the amount of force acting on it. (Biomechanically speaking, this has nothing to do with the sensation of stiff or tight muscles)
For research purposes, the contractile muscle tissue and the fibrous connective tissue cannot be separated in a living human. Therefore, when using the term ‘muscle’ in this article it means the muscle-tendon unit.
Nociceptors are sensory neurons that alert us to potential damage. They detect extremes in temperature and pressure and injury-related chemicals, and relay that information to the brain. The brain then evaluates those signals and “decides” whether or not to emit a pain signal.
Lower back pain that does not have a pathology. It does not have a diagnosis. NSLBP is sometimes defined as pain or stiffness between the bottom ribs and buttock crease, with or without leg pain. Approximately 80% of the population experiences LBP. 90% of acute episodes recover within 6 weeks.
A statement that suggests nothing interesting is happening. The researcher tries to disprove, reject or nullify this statement. The ‘null’ often refers to the common view of something, while the alternative hypothesis is what the researcher really thinks is the cause of a phenomenon.
The amount of load or resistance, providing a greater stress, or load, on the body than it is normally accustomed to in order to create a desired outcome such as increased strength or bone density. Progression is the way in which an individual should increase the load.
Originally a rehabilitation technique developed over 50 years ago, today’s version of PNF usually involves isometrically contracting a muscle, followed by relaxing the muscle, allowing an increase in range of motion. PNF was initially used in diagonal patterns in order to lengthen the muscle group as much as possible and incorporate the stretch reflex.
A prospective study watches a cohort (a group of people with a commonality) for the development of certain outcomes over a defined study period (usually long) and attempts to establish risk factors and/or protections factors of these outcomes.
A study where the subjects are selected by chance (randomly) to participate in an intervention and compared to one or more groups of subjects, one of which participated in no intervention at all (control group).
Involves repeated observations of the same sequence of treatments over long periods of time as well as randomly assigning interventions to the subjects. It’s said that randomized studies provide high reliability and validity to statistical estimates.
In sports and particularly exercise testing, the Borg RPE Scale measures perceived exertion. In medicine this is used to document the patient’s exertion during a test, and sports coaches use the scale to assess the intensity of training and competition. The RPE scale is used to measure the perceived intensity of your exercise and runs from 0 – 10.
The strength of the breathing muscles is assessed by inhaling (Maximum inspiratory pressure – MIP) or exhaling (maximum expiratory pressure – MEP) against an obstructed airway piece and measuring the pressure reached.
A form of occupational therapy in which special exercises are used to strengthen the patient’s sense of touch (tactile), sense of balance (vestibular), and sense of where the body and its parts are in space (proprioceptive).
The interaction between the rhomboids, serratus, and obliques: these muscles orient diagonally, providing force production between the hip and opposite shoulder; the serape effect provides the muscles of the core an optimal length-tension environment to maximize force production.
The process used by researchers to determine whether the null hypothesis is rejected, in favor of the alternative research hypothesis, or not. The test involves comparing the observed values with theorized values.
Also known as the tenth cranial nerve, it connects the heart, lungs and digestive tract with the brain by way of the parasympathetic nervous system. The vagus nerve can send and receive signals about bodily states.
A measurement tool that attempts to get a value for a subjective experience like pain. With pain, a person is shown a sheet of paper with a line on it that notes minimum on one side, and max on the other and told to evaluate and mark their pain along that line.
A group of participants included in a study that is assigned to a temporary waiting list that later receives intervention after the active treatment group. It is not an active control group which would receive a placebo treatment. It is not considered to be as reliable as active control groups however it is often used in psychological studies.
Established in the 1890s by German anatomist Julius Wolff, bone grows and remodels in response to the forces that are placed upon it. After injury to bone, placing specific stress in specific directions to the bone can help it remodel and become normal healthy bone again. If gradually increase load on a particular bone over time, the bone will remodel itself over time to become stronger to resist that sort of loading.