TITLE: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Hamstring Stretching: A Comparison of Four Techniques
PUBLICATION: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
AUTHORS : Jo M. Fasen, Annie M. O’Connor, Susan L. Schwartz, John O. Watson, Chris T. Plastaras, Cynthia W. Garvan, Creso Bulcao, Stephen C. Johnson, and Venu Akuthoa
Active stretching: Increasing range of motion through voluntary contraction.
Neuromobilization: Using active and passive movements to restore and improve mobility in common postures and during extremity movements.
Passive stretching: Increasing range of motion through passive resistance.
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF): Originally a rehabilitation technique developed over 50 years ago, today’s version of PNF usually involves isometrically contracting a muscle, followed by relaxing the muscle, allowing an increase in range of motion. PNF was initially used in diagonal patterns in order to lengthen the muscle group as much as possible and incorporate the stretch reflex.*
*To learn more, “Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation: Patterns and Techniques,” by Dorothy Voss and Margaret Knott explains the original concepts of PNF.