TITLE: Anterior cruciate ligament elasticity and force for flexion during the menstrual cycle
PUBLICATION: Medical Science Monitor
DATE: November 2013
AUTHORS : Haneul Lee, Jerrold S. Petrofsky, Noah Daher, Lee Berk, Michale Laymon, Iman Akers Khowailed
Much of the data compiled in the last couple of decades has shown that ACL tears occur in women at 2 to 8 times as many than in men. Many theories ranging from anatomy, motor patterning, strength, and hormonal effects are attributed to the higher incidence of ACL injuries.
ACL– Anterior cruciate ligament is in the knee and is one of the tissues connecting the femur to the tibia. It keeps the tibia from moving excessively anteriorly as well as rotating medially.
Estradiol– Estradiol is a steroid and the primary female sex hormone. ACL has a receptor for this so the estradiol has been found to affect the integrity of the ligament. A significant reduction of fibroblast proliferation was observed with increasing estradiol concentrations.(1)