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The goal of this research review is to define slow breathing, summarize the documented effects of slow breathing in healthy humans, and form a knowledge base of the physiological effects of slow breathing and proposed mechanisms of slow breathing for the discussion of clinical applications.

About The Author


Jenn Pilotti

TITLE: The physiological effects of slow breathing in the healthy human



DATE: 2017

AUTHORS : Marc A. Russo, Danielle M. Santarelli, Dean O’Rourke

Baroreflex: AKA baroreceptor reflex. A negative feedback mechanism involving stretch receptors and present primarily in the carotid sinus and aortic arch. Monitors arterial blood pressure and responds to acute changes via central-neural-autonomic pathways.

Cardiorespiratory coupling: relationships between heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration

Heart rate variability: A physiological occurrence referring to the fluctuation of R-R intervals

Minute ventilation: respiratory rate multiplied by tidal volume

Pranayama: Yogic breath control. Types of pranayama include double, single, or alternate nostril breathing, abdominal breathing, forceful breathing and vocalized/chanting breathing.

R-R interval: The time between heart beats

Slow breathing: 4-10 breaths per minute

Tidal breathing: Normal respiration with a relatively constant rate and inspiratory/expiratory volumes

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